Gregory C. Shaffer, The Challenges of WTO Law: Strategies for Developing Country Adaptation, 5 World Trade Rev. 177 (2006).
Although developing countries vary significantly in terms of trading profiles, they generally face three primary challenges if they are to participate effectively in the WTO dispute settlement system. These challenges are: (i) a relative lack of legal expertise in WTO law; (ii) constrained financial resources, including for the hiring of outside counsel; and (iii) fear of political and economic pressure. We can roughly categorize these challenges as constraints of law, money and politics. This article explores various strategies for responding to these challenges, none of which involves a modification of the rules of the WTO's Dispute Settlement Understanding.